agricultural extension service delivery in Ethiopia has its impact on the development of country. The Ministry appeals to all stakeholders to work together in Agriculture sector as it is the Privacy Under the Imperial Era, development policies favoured industrial development, neglecting the agricultural sector and worked mainly with the better-off and commercial farmers in and around major project areas. In Ethiopia land belongs to the government. Welteji, D. A critical review of rural development policy of Ethiopia: access, utilization and coverage. Agriculture is the mainstay of Ethiopian economy involving major source of employment and gross national product. Agricultural Development Policy in Ethiopia A BaselIne Study in Fedis Awraja Fantu Cheru Bergen, September 1992. In September 2017, the heads of the UN food agencies - FAO, IFAD and WFP - travelled together to Ethiopia to assess how to work closer together to eradicate hunger and poverty. They help them gain access to natural resources, technology, finance, institutional capacity and markets. Exports rely almost entirely on agricultural commodities such as coffee, seeds, pulses and livestock. Apparently, some farmers choose to be innovators (first users), while others prefer to be early adopters, late adopters or non-adopters [13]. The possible questions of this review are: Were the rural development policy packages of the country accessible to different segments of society? However, the cost of modern technologies is so prohibitive that few farmers in limited areas of the country are so far reached. Agricultural productivity is being hampered by land degradation, poor water management, low technology usage and an underdeveloped marketing system, among other factors. Article  Cookies policy. Kibret H. Land reform: revisiting the public versus private ownership controversy. In: Eicher C, Staaz JM, editors. Since 1980, IFAD has invested US$751.6 million in 20 programmes and projects in Ethiopia, with an overall cost of US$2,157.6 million and benefiting more than 11 million households. Addis Ababa: FSS; 2008. p. 129–51. A new US$305.7 million programme will help more than 13 million of Ethiopia’s most vulnerable farmers to increase and diversify their incomes, access financial services and build their resilience in rural areas threatened by climate change. Kassa B. Debele B. World Bank. 2003;18(1):49–83. Ethiopia’s economy and the role of the agriculture sector 2. By using this website, you agree to our They are intended to benefit particularly women and young people. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press; 1984. Addis Ababa: Ethiopian Economic Policy Research Institute; 2004. p. 80. The reviewer gave due attention for environmental and sociocultural considerations. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy. In 2010, for example, 2.8 million Ethiopians were in need of emergency food aid. As indicated in Table 1 throughout the phases, the interventions are not accessed by all segments of the society, limited to certain geographical areas in terms of coverage and constrained by different institutional factors. However, due to the commitment of heads of states in Maputo in 2003 to allocate 10% of their budget to agriculture and a recovery of attention to agriculture, Ethiopia is one of the eight countries to meet the target allocating 15% of the budget over the decade of 2003/2004–2012/2013 [1]. The most prominent and enduring economy-wide strategy to guide development effort has been Agricultural-Led Industrialization (ADLI), the Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Program (SDPRP), Participatory and Accelerated Sustainable Development to Eradicate poverty (PASDEP) and successive growth and transformation plans (GTP I and II). Terms and Conditions, IFAD’s loans support programmes that provide smallholder farmers, pastoralists and agro-pastoralists with the assets needed to enhance their productivity and resilience. However, population growth, environmental degradation, climate-related decline of yield, low level of farm input innovation, capital constraints are among the pressing constraints. The essence of this model is explained by the evolution of a sequence of increasingly complex land- and labour-intensive cropping systems, the production and use of organic manures, and labour-intensive capital formation in the form of drainage, irrigation and other physical facilities to more effectively utilize land and water resources [14]. The country has varied agro-climatic zones. The 1991 economic policy document of the TGE declared collectivization and villagization as undesirable and liberalized both agricultural markets. Development Strategy and Governance Division, International Food Policy Research Institute—Ethiopia Strategy Support Program II, Ethiopia; 2011. These strategies intend, among others, to attain food self-sufficiency at national level by increasing productivity of smallholders through research-generated information and technologies, increasing the supply of industrial and export crops and ensuring the rehabilitation and conservation of natural resource base with special consideration of package approach [8,9,10] (Table 1). Agricultural development in the rural areas of Ethiopia can facilitate greater national food security and allow for an increase in agricultural exports. © 2021 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. The EPRDF overthrew the Derg regime in May 1991 after a 17-year prolonged civil war in all parts of the country, leading to the formation of Transitional Government of Ethiopia (TGE). INTRODUCTION Eighty-three percent of the population depends directly on agriculture for their livelihoods, while many others depend on agriculture-related cottage industries such as textiles, However, the expected level was not achieved. The 2015/16 El Niño induced drought had severe impact on agricultural production (crop and livestock), which left nearly 10 million people in need of food assistance. Keywords: Extension, challenge, Role, Agriculture, Ethiopia. However, there are few remaining areas in Ethiopia today where development along the lines of the frontier model would represent an efficient source of growth. Therefore, it is high time to explore possibilities for identifying approaches that could complement existing strategies of growth [5]. Agricultural development in the third world. It is similar to other efforts to develop physical capital as a means for economic growth… Rural Development, though, by definition is oriented more toward benefiting primarily the poor… Includes planned, ongoing and closed projects, Type: Country Strategic Opportunities Programme, Approved by the Executive Board or IFAD President, Rural Financial Intermediation Programme III, Participatory Small-scale Irrigation Development Programme II, Pastoral Community Development Project III, Rural Financial Intermediation Programme II, Pastoral Community Development Project II, Community-based Integrated Natural Resources Management Project, Participatory Small-scale Irrigation Development Programme, Agricultural Marketing Improvement Programme, Agricultural Research and Training Project, Informal Seed Component of the Seed Systems Development Project, Southern Region Cooperatives Development and Credit Project, Rehabilitation Programme for Drought Affected Areas, Second Agricultural Minimum Package Project. Development Plan has been documented since the 1950s in Ethiopia. The main objective of this review is to indicate the policy gaps in terms of access, utilization and coverage of rural development policy programme packages by different segments of people in rural areas. In: Eicher C, Staaz JM, editors. The ranges in climate variability by season and over time framed a sophisticated set of crops, agricultural practices, and local political ecologies. 8062-ET, Washington, DC; 1990. Ethiopian agriculture has been suffering from various external and internal problems. The extent to which farmers adopt available innovations and the speed by which they do so determine the impact of innovations in terms of productivity growth. The government extension programme lists these as: areas of adequate rainfall; areas of moisture stress; and pastoral areas. Tenure security is vital for a successful agricultural development, especially in a country like Ethiopia where 85% … The result shows that there is no evidence that the 2. 67. The land tilled by the Ethiopian small-scale farmer accounts for 95% of the total area under agricultural use, and these farmers are responsible for more than 90% of the total agricultural output [3]. Ethiopia and D. R. Congo; 2010. Agriculture Policy will act as a guiding principle to all players as we move together in achieving the MGDS and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in the short, medium and long term. The major factors which make this model highly relevant to Ethiopian agriculture are: the fact that Ethiopia is unable to make widespread use of existing technological backlog due to, mainly, the high costs of generation and diffusion of new techniques of production; the possibility that the improvement approach involves cost-effective techniques of production and capital formation as it is based upon the use of the relatively abundant and that it could delay the operations of the law of diminishing returns as land is saved through labour intensification; and the fact that soil conservation programmes need special attention as the resource base of the agricultural sector is being depleted at an alarming rate due to the fact that the soil erosion and desertification process continue almost unabated [17, 18]. Most young people live in rural areas, where livelihood opportunities are increasingly scarce. Report No. Paper presented at the national workshop on food strategies for Ethiopia. agricultural and rural development: “Agricultural Development generally tries to raise agricultural production and productivity and is of a technical nature. Accepted 31 May, 2013 This paper assesses the recent policy reforms. The current Ethiopian agriculture policy encourages smallholding farmers and investors to strongly engage in agricultural development. Ruttan VW. In addition, a recent Natural Resource Perspective paper by the Overseas Development Institute found that good infrastructure , education and effective information services in rural areas were necessary to improve the chances of making agriculture work for the poor.

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