Ten figures clambered over piles of rubble from the old cotton warehouse, picking up bricks. The current mayor is Darrio Melton. Ralph Abernathy, Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel, Greek Orthodox Father Iakovos (later Archbishop Iakovos of America) and Roman Catholic nuns. The Selma iron works and foundry was considered the second-most important source of weaponry for the South, after the Tredegar Iron Works in Richmond, Virginia. The retreating Confederate forces, upon reaching the inner works, united and fired repeatedly together into the charging column. Nearly half of Selma's residents were black, but because of the restrictive electoral laws and practices in place since the turn of the century, only one percent were registered to vote, preventing them from serving on juries or serving in local office. Some historians and political participants argue that the movie unfairly portrays President Johnson as a too pragmatic of a politician who used racial slurs and was willing to postpone legislation ensuring voting rights for African Americans. Forrest was wounded by a saber-wielding Union captain, whom he shot and killed with his revolver. Altogether Wilson had 9,000 troops available for the assault. There was a downturn after restructuring in industry that had done well into the 1960s. US History Civil Rights Movement. Gen. Emory Upton's Division was placed across the Range Line Road with Battery I, 4th US Artillery in support. On March 30, 1865, Union General James H. Wilson detached Gen. John T. Croxton's brigade to destroy all Confederate property at Tuscaloosa. Frank Minis Johnson, Jr., the federal district court judge for the area who reviewed the injunction, decided in favor of the demonstrators, saying: The law is clear that the right to petition one's government for the redress of grievances may be exercised in large groups ... and these rights may be exercised by marching, even along public highways. He began a running fight with Forrest's forces that did not end until after the fall of Selma. White families in Selma, and some of the more affluent Black families, send their children to the better performing Meadowview Christian School where the student population is over 90% White. Actually Johnson was renown as a potty mouth who openly referred to Blacks as "niggers." Share this article on Twitter. What happened in Selma is part of a far larger movement which reaches into every section and State of America. He quickly remounted his stricken horse and ordered a dismounted assault by several regiments. Later Anglo-Americans called it the Moore's Bluff settlement. Selma to Montgomery is a national historic trail in Alabama which traces the march of non-violent supporters of equal… They left Selma heading to Montgomery. In modern times, the city is best known for the 1960s civil rights movement and the Selma to Montgomery marches, beginning with "Bloody Sunday" in 1965 and ending with 25,000 people entering Montgomery at the end of the last march to press for voting rights. Selma, Dallas County and other jurisdictions carried out the segregation laws passed by the state. If you watch the film Selma as a way of commemorating the 50th anniversary of the march for voting rights in Selma, Ala., you may be interested to … Selma has four private K–12 schools: John T. Morgan Academy, founded in 1965, Meadowview Christian School, Ellwood Christian Academy, and Cathedral Christian Academy. Selma was incorporated in 1820. The median age was 36 years. It was a cold day for Selma, Alabama, close to freezing, and as the sun disappeared … In 2000 sections of Highway 80 leading into Selma were renamed in honor of leaders in the Selma Voting Rights Movement: F.D. Source(s): https://shrink.im/a08qq. The march was organised by Martin Luther King Jr., American Baptist minister and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. Selma City Schools operates the city's public schools. The Southern artillery had only solid shot on hand, while a short distance away was an arsenal which produced tons of canister, a highly effective anti-personnel ammunition. At 5 pm, however, Gen. Eli Long's ammunition train in the rear was attacked by advance elements of Forrest's scattered forces approaching Selma. After they passed over the crest of the Edmund Pettus Bridge and left the boundaries of the city, they were confronted by county sheriff's deputies and state troopers, who attacked them using tear gas, horses and billy clubs, and drove them back across the bridge. Especially in the post-World War II period, legal challenges by the NAACP against Southern discriminatory laws enabled blacks to more freely exercise their constitutional rights as citizens. [3] About 80% of the population is African-American. Even boosters like state house speaker Mike Hubbard concede Alabama ranks in the bottom half of the states in student performance by every measure including 44th in overall K-12 student achievement. Why. Overall, the district is ranked number 85 out of 100 school districts in the state. They were 8 feet (2.4 m) to 12 feet (3.7 m) high, 15 feet (4.6 m) thick at the base, with a ditch 4 feet (1.2 m) wide and 5 feet (1.5 m) deep along the front. [13], In the summer of 1964, a sweeping injunction issued by local judge James Hare barred any gathering of three or more people under sponsorship of SNCC, SCLC or DCVL, or with the involvement of 41 named civil rights leaders. The official website of Selma Alabama describes it as the "Queen City of the Black Belt" and the "Butterfly Capital of Alabama." The "Black Belt" region of the South runs from Virginia through the Carolinas, Georgia, Alabama, and into the delta of the Mississippi River including portions of Arkansas, Tennessee, Louisiana, and the northwest section of Mississippi. Industries in Selma include International Paper, Bush Hog (agricultural equipment), Plantation Patterns, American Apparel, and Peerless Pump Company (LaBour), Renasol, and Hyundai. The Selma Voting Rights Struggle: 15 Key Points from Bottom-Up History and Why It Matters Today. But that night, white minister James Reeb, who had traveled to the city from Boston, was attacked and killed in Selma by members of the KKK. As White liberals drifted away from the movement, Black communities were increasingly radicalized and less than a week after Lyndon Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act in August 1965 rioting broke out in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles. The Mayor of Selma, George Patrick Evans, is African American, as is the City Council president, seven of the ten members of the City Council, the Chief of Police, and all five members of the school board. [12], Against fierce opposition from Dallas County Sheriff Jim Clark and his volunteer posse, blacks continued their voter registration and desegregation efforts, which expanded during 1963 and the first part of 1964. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 14.4 square miles (37 km2), of which 13.9 square miles (36 km2) is land and 0.6 square miles (1.6 km2) is water.[19]. Posted on 03/27/2008 10:36:25 AM PDT by TheDotte. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 72.0 males. The white Democratic state legislature imposed Jim Crow laws of racial segregation in public facilities and other means of white supremacy. Selma is located at 32°24′26″N 87°1′16″W / 32.40722°N 87.02111°W / 32.40722; -87.02111,[18] west of Montgomery. To the west, many Confederate soldiers fought the pursuing Union Army all the way down to the eastern side of Valley Creek. On "Bloody Sunday" in 1965, Lewis was beaten by Alabama state troopers. [6] Planters and other slaveholders struggled with how to deal with freed slaves after the war. Following the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which made discrimination illegal based on race, the Selma to Montgomery march was organized to help register black voters in the South and to protest against racially motivated violence. The federal government provided protection in the form of National Guard and military troops. It was covered by national press and television news, reaching many American and international homes.[15]. Long's troops attacked in a single rank in three main lines, dismounted and shooting their Spencer's carbines, supported by their own artillery fire. Defying intimidation, economic retaliation, arrests, firings and beatings, an ever-increasing number of Dallas County blacks tried to register to vote, but few were able to do so under the subjective system administered by whites. This broke up the charge and sent General Wilson sprawling to the ground when his favorite horse was wounded. Legal. Alabama “What happened in Selma is part of a far larger movement which reaches into every section and State of America. helped raise awareness of the difficulty faced by black voters in the South, and the need for a Voting Rights Act, passed later that year. Museums in the city include Sturdivant Hall, the National Voting Rights Museum, Historic Water Avenue, Martin Luther King, Jr. Street Historic Walking Tour, Old Depot Museum, Joe Calton Bates Children Education and History Museum, Vaughan-Smitherman Museum and Heritage Village. By then local activists and residents had been joined by hundreds of protesters from across the country, including numerous clergy and nuns. What was the first date that protesters were assembled in Selma, AL on the Court House steps having their picture taken by National TV (NBC). The biggest problem facing Selma according to a report issued by Auburn University is endemic poverty. The Jim Crow laws and customs were enforced with violence. Chestnut (Selma's first black attorney), SCLC Citizenship School teacher Marie Foster, public school teacher Marie Moore, Frederick D. Reese and others active with the Dallas County Voters League (DCVL).

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